AM Amplitude modulation, relating to transmission of sound.
American Research Bureau (ARB) Market research company that conducts surveys.
Aperture The diameter of a camera lens opening, also called an iris opening, which controls the amount of light permitted to reach the film.
Arbitron Rating service of ARB that conducts television viewing surveys.
A roll, B roll The practice of putting interview material on one projector non-interview on another, resulting in the designation of one or the other by A roll or.B roll when preparing the final script.

Ascertainment primer Former FCC requirement that a station applying for a license or for renewal must survey community problems and show how programming has dealt and would deal with these problems.
Associated Press (AP) One of the wire services used extensively by news programs.
Automation Use of computers to control some radio equipment and to perform some duties otherwise ” required of personnel.
Bite A recorded quote, used in documentaries and news programs.
Blending Combining and sending out over the air two or more different sounds at the same time.

Boom A crane used in television that holds a microphone – or camera at the end, making it possible to follow or move closer to the performers. Also, the movement of the crane with the camera or microphone to and from the subject.
Bridge A sound, usually mV % connecting two consecutive segments of a radio program.
Bumped Rapidly changed intensity
Bumper Material added to the beginning or end of the principal part of a commercial or to the end of a program; that is coming up short.

Cable Wired, as differentiated from over-the-air or broadcast, television transmission, see Coaxial cable.
Cart Audio cartridge, Radio scripts usually specify a can number, which designates segment to be inserted at a given place in a program;- some scripts use the term cut with a number referring to the segment on audiotape.
Chain break Network break for national or local ads.

  • Character generator Electronic device that cuts letters into background pictures.
  • Chiron See Character generator.
  • Chroma key Electronic effect that can cut a given color out of a picture and replace it with another visual.
  • Close-up Filling the TV screen with a close view of the subject. As with other shot designations, it has various gradations (i.e. medium close-up) and abbreviations.
  • Coaxial cable Metallic conductors that carry a large bandwidth and many channels; wired television.
  • Control board Instruments that regulate the volume of output of all radio microphones, turntables, and tapes and can blend the sounds from two or more sources.
  • Co-op announcement Multiple sponsors on a network commercial individual messages locally spotted.
  • Crane shot See Boom.
  • Crawl Movement of titles on screen.
  • Crawling titles Titles that move slowly and across the screen.
  • Cross-fade Dissolving from one sound or picture to another see Dissolve.
  • Cross plug An announcement for one of the station’s programs or the advertiser’s other products.
  • CS Close shot. Frequently used for CU.
  • CU Close-up.
  • Cut In film, instantaneous switch from one picture to another, created in film editing room; also used to designate end of a shooting sequence. In television, instantaneous switch from one camera to another. In radio, see Cart.
  • Cutting Moving abruptly from one sound or picture to another.
  • DBS Direct broadcast satellite, permits an individual with receiving dish to pick up designated satellite signals; sometimes called Satellite to-home transmission.
  • Deep focus The longest and shortest distances in which the camera can get the sharpest image on any given shot, aiming at a three-dimensional illusion.
  • Demographics Analysis of audience characteristics.
  • Detail set A constructed detail of the set to augment close-ups.
  • Dissolve Fading from one picture or sound into’ another, see Cross-fade.
  • Dolly A carriage with three or four wheels on which a microphone or camera is mounted. Also, the movement of the carriage with the camera toward or away from the subject.
  • Drive time Automobile commuter hours, important in determining radio programming formats and placement of commercials.
  • ECU Extreme close-up.
  • EFFX Effects.
  • EFP Electronic field production, the use of minicam equipment to produce commercials and other non- news materials away from the studio.
  • Electronic synthesizer Computerized device that can mix and prepare for reply varied sounds, including music.
  • ENG Electronic news gathering, the use of minicam equipment to cover news stories.
  • Equal Time rule Congressional and FCC rule that bona fide candidates for the same political office be given equal time for radio and television broadcasts.
  • ET Electrical transcription; when used with a number (e.g. ET #6) refers to a segment on a record to be used in a program.
  • EXCU Extreme close-up
  • EXT Exterior; designates setting in a film script.
  • Fade, fade in, fade out Gradual appreance or disappearance of sound (in radio) or picture (in television).
  • Fairness Doctrine Congressional and FCC requirement that if only one side of an issue that is controversial . for a given community is presented by a radio or television station in that community, comparable time must be provided for the other viewpoints.