During this phase the role of Muslim press could be studied in two stages, the first covering the 1924-1928 period and the second covering the years between 1928 and 1937. During the first stage, Muslim politics was in the melting pot and in the second stage it took a concrete and clear-cut form. The following are the principal features of the first stage

Some old journalists re-entered the arena. Mohammed Ali resumed publication of “Hamdard” and “The Comrade” in 1924. The former continued for five years and the latter for not more than a couple of years. Abul Kalam Azad re-started Al- Hilal in 1927 but after six months had to-close down as it was no longer in sufficient demand.

More newspapers came into being namely “Al- Amman” and “Wahdat” from Delhi, “Khilfat” from Bombay, “Haq” and “Hamdam” from Lucknow, “Asre Jadid” and “Hind” from Calcutta,’ *A1 Waheed” from Karachi and “Muslim Outlook” and “Inqilab” from Lahore Among the old newspapers “Zamindar” remained prominent and “Siaasat” held.

Highlights of Policy

Almost all Muslim dailies were primarily congregate with the possible exception of the “Muslim Outlook”, at the same time they owed allegiance to Muslim organizations striving of Muslim rights. They condemned Shuddi and Saiiathan movements and gave only lukewarm support to the Tabligh and Tanzem movements. They were almost unanimous on the point that the leadership of these movements should be captured by nationalist-minded politicians so that after the storm was over, they could rally the people around a united front for the liberation of the sub-continent.

Unusual attention was given to the politics of the Muslim world When Ibn-i-Saud demolished some tombs “Siasat” opposed him and Zamindar and Hamdard supported it. When Ibn-i-Saud accepted Kingship, Hamdard too lined against him while “Zamindar” supported him on the plea that he was anti-imperialist.

During this phase the demand for reforms to the N.W.F.P. and separation of Sind from Bombay were projected from time to time in the columns of the “Zamindar”. With the emergence of the clear-cut Muslim stand in the form of Mr. Jinnah’s Fourteen Points, Muslim press was divided into two groups namely the Nationalist group and the Muslim League group. The former included “Zamindar” of Lahore, “A1 Jamiat” of Delhi, “Madina” of Bijnor and “Hind” of Calcutta.

These papers took the position that Hindu-Muslim problem did not exist except in the imagination of the pro-British, and that the settlement of the Hindu-Muslim problem was not a pre-requisite for the establishment of a united front to attain independence. They supported Nehru Report, and joint electorates and gave strong opposition to the Fourteen Points.

They also gave full support to the’ Congress when it launched civil disobedience movements in order to pressurize the British to part with power without taking into consideration the Muslim national demands. The erstwhile common membership of both Muslim League and Congress had, by that time ceased to exist.

Later Maulana Zafar Ali Khan left Congress but did not join Muslim League. He sponsored Majilis-i-Ittihad-i-Millat, a new political party which suffered a rout in 1937 elections and after that he joined Muslim League and stood firm till the attainment of Pakistan.

During the early thirties a group of Muslim nationalists established Majlis-i-Ahrar-i-Islam but stuck to the nationalist and anti-League policy. It started a few newspapers from time to time, but they had a short-lived existence.

A notable addition to the nationalist Muslim press was “Payarq” of Hyderabad Deccan, edited by Qazi Abdul Ghaffar. Some Congressite elements started an Urdu daily from Lahore named “Tiriyaq” but it had to close down very soon.