In previous pages we have studied the communication as the vehicle of sharing information, togetherness or commonness with information, an idea or an attitude. In the process of communication four elements or components are at play. As a guadruple process, it entails, the source the sender, the message and the destination.

1) Source or the sender may be an individual speaking, writing, drawing or gesturing; it may assume the form of organization as a newspaper, a studio, a publishing house, a broadcasting house, television station, a motion picture studio etc. Without the source or the sender, the process of communication is not possible.

It is of primary and vital importance and is the basic ingredient in communication, rather is the first rung of the ladder of communication and the first link in the chain of transmission. The variety of the sources is not only diverse but numerous, involving human beings’ activities and engagements and the utilization of the latest technological gadgets.

2) Message: The message can be termed as the crux of the whole process and the second vital rung and link in the ladder of the communication. It may assume the form of verbal, on-verbal or vocal message. As Wilber Scram says, the message may be in the form of ink on paper sound waves in the air or any other signal capable of being interpreted meaningfully.

It may appear in the form of sound waves on the air to be turned into vocal chords of words, vibrations or oscillations of an electric current or the gestures with the hand. Its variety of forms does not end here, as it may appear in the nodding of the head, a smile on the face or a frown on the forehead etc. However the message should be intended move, and motivated act; and qualified with an intention which is the decisive and vital factor in constituting message. Wilbur Shram suggests four essential qualities or characteristics of an effective message.

First it should be composed and designed in a manner of being capable of fully absorbing the attention of the intended destination. Messages are of infinite variety, out of which only intends and selected messages and operate and work, which in turn gain the attention of the intended destination. It entirely depends on the availability and the accessibility of the message of the message, which is turn depends on our specific needs and interest.

Secondly the intended message to an intended destination should be so designed with the signs with close reference to experience.These must be closeness, togetherness and commonness of experience between the source and the destination in order to smooth and facilitate the process of meaning. The sameness of the experience of the intended message is the crux of the communication; otherwise it will fail and crumble. Generally the said experience is classified in terms of our specific needs and interests. As such, for the successful operation and process of communication, the said message should be designed and constructed to facilitate the link is reality between the source and the receiver.

Thirdly the intended message should give rise to personality needs in the destination, by suggesting some ways to meet those needs. Emphasis has been laid on the personality needs which entail simple and complex situation. In simple situation, our instincts are operating automatically, as stopping our car on seeing the red signal or withdrawing our hand on feeling a sensation of pain by touching a hot pan unconsciously.

Briefly, the message should be designed strictly according to our personal needs, as the need of security, love, satisfaction of hunger; our need for freedom from anxiety etc. In this way, the intended message not only arouses a desire, but can act as a leveler and as a controller. By the message, we can propel in the right direction and guide the resulting consequences towards our intended goals.

Fourthly message should be designed in a manner to suit our needs with regard to gregarious nature of the man and as appropriate to the social and cultural grouping of the sender concerned, and to make the desired response. Social and cultural groupings and basically condition the attitude and actions of its members, projecting the existing standards and values in the society; and in case of non- compliance with them, the process of communication is bound to complete failure and breakdown.

3) Channel: Literally the channel means a means of communication or expression; also a path along which data passes or along which data may be stored serially as in a computer. A form of channel has to be provided. Simply the channel is some form of physical means by which the intended message or signal is to be transmitted. It may assume the form of talking, printing, or writing, sound wave, radio wave, telephone cable, the nervous system and numerous others.

The choice of the channel depends mainly on the significance of the message intended to be transmitted or communicated. However the availability and audience determine the choice of channel. In primary group, the choice is easy and in other instances it becomes complicated. Basically it also depends on the sender,s emotional and psychological orientation.

In case of the availability of all the channels, the choice becomes complicated which is determined by many factors, as the accessibility, the familiarity of the audience with the different channels, the nature of their trust in the channels, the relative efficiency of various channels, reinforcement of channels by one another to make the message effective and the expected impact or various channels on the norms of a social group.